Synergy and Brio are fertilizer enhancement compounds that can be applied in mixtures with fertilizer and herbicide compounds (as in furrow or foliar respectively). Treatments in spring wheat and barley consisted of (1) In furrow application of Synergy at 0.946L ac-1 with fertilizer, (2) Foliar application of Brio at 0.473 L ac-1 shortly after Esteem (Fluroxypyr at 0.32 lb ac-1, Clopyralid at 0.11 lb ac-1 and MCPA at 0.365 L ac-1) herbicide application, (3) Application of Synergy and fertilizer in furrow with foliar application of Brio shortly after Esteem herbicide application at the same rate previously mentioned for treatment (2).
Treatments for the winter wheat trial included (1) Foliar application of Synergy at 0.946 L ac-1, (2) and (3) were foliar applications of Brio at single and double application rates (0.0055 and 0.11 L ac-1 respectively), (4) foliar application of Toggle at 0.11 L ac-1. A control treatment is also included where standard fertility and management techniques are conducted.
Foliar fertilizers such as Optimize+, Vigor Plus, 10-10-10 Premier Gro, and Prime Micro Cu (Copper) are fertilizer amendments composed of plant based sources. As such, their formulation is based on amino acid chains (peptides) that facilitate penetration into foliar tissue and guaranty greater plant nutrition absorption.
In pea, test weight (P=0.2085) was the same among treatments and thus there was no difference in comparison to the control. In contrast yield was greater in the control and in treatment 2, and lower in treatment 3 (P=0.0387).
In wheat, there was no difference between treatments compared to the control in test weight and yield (P=0.1679 and P=0.4639 respectively).
Canada Western Hard Red Spring (CWRS) Wheat
Number of plants per square foot was greater in the CDC SKRush variety while the lowest number of emergent plants per square foot was found in the CS Tracker variety (P≤0.0001). Percentage of moisture content was lower in the Ellerslie variety while higher moisture content was present in SY Torach (P=0.0010). As for yield, the AAC Brandon was the variety that produced the most compared to variety the CS Jake variety which produced the least yield (P=0.0231). Test weight among variables was statistically the same (P=0.0667).
Overall, it can be argued that CS Tracker and CS Jake are the lowest yielding varieties which coincides with them having the lowest number of emergent plants per square meter. SY Torach and CDC SKRush, two varieties with higher moisture content and emergence, respectively, can also be varieties as high yielding as AAC Brandon, as all these three varieties are statistically the same.
Canada Prairie Spring (CPS) Wheat
Moisture and number of plants per squared foot were the same among all varieties. Test weight and yield however, differed as heavier test weights were reported in AAC Foray VB and AAC Goodwin compared to the rest of the varieties (P=0.0161). AAC Goodwin was the highest yielding variety whereas AAC Foray, AAC Penhold and SY Rowyn were the lowest. Generally, AAC Goodwin was the top variety in terms of test weight and yield, with respect to SY Rowyn which underperformed in relation to the rest of the CPS varieties.
Oat varieties were significantly different among each other. While greater number of plants per square foot were found in the CDC Endure variety, CDC SO-1 had the lowest (P=0.0369). As for percentage of moisture content, AAC Douglas, CDC SO-1 and Arborg varieties had less moisture compared to CDC Haymaker (P= 0.0269). OREe3542M and Arborg varieties had the highest test weight compared to the lower test weight found in the CDC Haymaker variety (P=0.0095). Moreover, yield was greater in the Candem variety compared to the AC Morgan variety which was the least yielding (P=0.0130).
In general terms, Candem was the highest yielding variety even though it had the lowest number of emergent plants per square foot and a similar test weight to CDC Haymaker, which had the lightest test weight among all varieties.
Yield from each crop was different across all intercropping combinations (P≤0.0001). Pulses such as faba bean intersown with wheat and field pea intersown in barley and in canola reported the lowest yields. Barley intersown in both lentil and field pea, respectively, was higher yielding than other cereals such as oat, wheat and other types of main crops such as flax and canola. The North Peace weather is characterized for its long dry periods, where rains could turn out once a month and extensive heat can stress and jeopardize grain quality of main crops. It is also characterized for its soils with heavy clay, where moisture from rain periods can last for days and excess water is unable to filter through. Pulses require plenty of rain and soil moisture in order to produce competent yields. It is possible the dry periods occurring in the summer season compromised pulse yields while cereals were able to manage heat stress.
Number of insects per plot varied across weeks (P≤0.0001) and across intercrop combinations (P=0.0002). The interaction between weeks and intercropping combinations was the same (P=0.3690). The greatest number of insects was reported on the first week of August whereas the lowest was June 24, which coincided with a period of extreme heat and drought. Canola and field pea intercropping combination had the lowest number of insects compared to the rest of the combinations where numbers were statistically the same.
Crystal Green is a fertilizer of continuous release made by Ostara. This fertilizer acts by releasing nitrogen, phosphorus and magnesium upon expel of root exudated citrates. Since fertilizer dissemination is modulated by components released from roots, run-off and leaching is minimized. The extent of its benefits in different crops is yet unknown. Thus, Crystal Green was tested in oilseed, pulse and cereal crops in order to observe which formulation improves yield in each of these crop types.