The Canola Council of Canada advises that canola should be sown with high seeding densities and preferably using larger seed size (up to 2.2mm). Moreover, seeding later in the season should be considered rather than seeding on earlier dates. Briefly, greater plant densities produced by high seeding rates compensate for flea beetle leaf damage. More tolerant seedlings to flea beetles have been observed to be affected by seed size and canola sown mid-May to early-June. Late sown less affected by flea beetle damage than canola seeded in late-April to early-May. Currently, there is limited research showing how all these recommendations, acting in conjunction, affect canola production. Therefore, this study aims to evaluate the impact of seeding rate, seed size, and seeding date on flea beetle damage and populations. Furthermore, a split-plot factor analysis will also allow us to examine interaction effects between seeding rate, seed size and seeding date. Further insight on interactions effects will allow us to measure the true flea beetle response to these recommendations, and provide new recommendations based on these possible interactions.
The objective is to evaluate the impact on flea beetle leaf damage and flea beetle population of seeding date (late-April to early-May and second to third week of May), seed size (small, large and unsorted), and seeding rate (112,56 and 168 plant m-2)
The objective of this experiment is to observe which fertilizer recommendation (either one provided by an A&L Laboratories soil chemical analysis or one provided by a WARD Laboratories Haney soil test) is best for crops such as wheat, canola and pea.
Allelopathy is the influence, usually detrimental, of one plant on another, where toxic substances are released when a plant dies or produced through decaying tissue. These secondary metabolites may establish direct or indirect impacts on populations of their own or different species. Allelopathy can a) affect the growth and yield of another crop (Batish et al. 2001) or b) develop autotoxicity, meaning chemicals expelled from plant residues of a species can hinder the growth of seedlings of the same species. Thus, if managed properly, allelopathy can be a great alternative in weed management.
Many of the cover crops seeded to protect the ground have allelopathic properties. Crops such as rye (Secale cereale L.), annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum L.), hairy vetch (Vicia villosa L.) and sunflower (Helianthus annuus L) have been shown to limit or reduce the growth of other plant species. Therefore, residues of these cover crops not only provide benefits to the soil but also help to reduce weed populations through allelopathy for the cash crops seeded in the season thereafter. In this experiment weeds were surveyed every two weeks after cover crop mix seeding to observe if allelopathic effects changed according to cover crop species or cover crop mixes. At the end of the season, plots were either roller-crimped or incorporated. The following growing season, canola, field pea and wheat will be sown perpendicular to the direction of these plots to observe if weed populations are still suppressed by the allelopathic effects of the cover crops and their mixes. Further, it will be assessed whether roller-crimping and incorporation impact weed suppression along with allelopathy.
Field pea is a poor competitor crop. As a temporal solution to control faster growing weeds and alleviate competition, fields are sprayed with Group 2 herbicides which have shown to cause herbicide weed resistance. It is hypothesized that if the seeding rate is increased, yield will be compensated despite weed competition. In addition, if field pea is intersown with cover crops, there is greater weed suppression. This is an economic advantage as it removes the necessity for herbicide application and inclusion of cover crops supply additional organic matter to the soil. This two-year split block experiment consisted of a Group 2 herbicide (in this case REFINE SG) application to spring wheat. Plots were either sprayed with the herbicide at 12 g ac-1 or left untreated. The following year, field pea was sown at three different seeding rates (90, 180 and 270 lb ac-1). Each of these rates were either sown alone or intersown with either annual rye, barley, oat and rye at 5, 35, 35, and 17 lb ac-1. Weeds were counted using 25 cm quadrats every two weeks and grouped as either broadleaf or grass.
Is it possible to seed wheat earlier in the season? If so, can you seed at temperatures between 0 and 10°C? Would cold air and soil temperatures affect yield, test weight, thousand kernel weight and emergence? This experiment aims to answer all of these questions. Two hard red spring wheat varieties (AAC Brandon and AAC Connery) were selected to be seeded as soon as ground temperature was above 0°C (May 6 for the 2021 growing season) at 56.6, 84.9 and 113.2 plants ft-2. Seeding of the same varieties at the same seeding rates also took place later in the season when ground temperatures were above 10°C (May 20).
Most of the soil organic matter is composed of humic substances (Nardi et al. 2002). Humic substances nurture plant cell membrane functions and encourage nutrient uptake. In the past ten years, there has been a growing body of evidence supporting the use of bio-stimulants in agriculture for both horticultural and field crop production systems, where they have been shown to increase root growth, enhanced nutrient uptake, and increase stress tolerance. du Jardin (2015) defined plant bio-stimulants in five categories: 1) microbial inoculants, 2) humic acids, 3) fulvic acids, 4) protein hydrolysates, and 5) amino acids, and seaweed extracts.
Fulvic acid, is of particular interest, as it is a natural chelator and thus helps facilitate migration of metal ions and nutrients across tissue membranes (Sun et al, 2012). It also retains many properties that make it ideal for foliar tank mixes, such as: (a) high solubility under different pH conditions (b) high cation exchange capacity, and (c) recorded absence of antagonistic effects with nutrients or pesticides. Owing to its low molecular weight (a few hundred Daltons), it can easily cross plant tissue membranes, and remains in solution even at high salt concentrations. All of which are considered ideal for foliar nutrient applications.
At the North Peace Applied Research Association, an experiment was designed to determine if foliar applications of Nitrogen with or without additions of fulvic acid have an effect on yield and leaf nitrogen content in canola, field pea and wheat. For field pea, only one treatment was conducted where foliar application of fulvic acid at 0.65 L ac-1 was applied at the 6th node and at the 12th node stage. This treatment was compared against a control where peas were sown in furrow with 13-33-0-15S at 120 lb ac-1. Above ground biomass was collected one week after foliar applications on each crop. For canola and wheat, the experiment was designed as a complete randomized block design with four treatments: (1) Dry urea at 150-175 lb ac-1 treated with fulvic acid at 0.3 L ac-1 applied at seeding, (2) Dry urea at seeding at 80-105 lb ac-1 followed by two foliar applications of liquid urea at 20 L ac-1, (3) Dry urea at 80-105 lb ac-1 treated with fulvic acid at 0.3 L ac-1 at seeding and two foliar applications of liquid urea with fulvic acid at 20 L ac-1 and 0.65 L ac-1, respectively and (4) seeding application of dry urea at 80-105 lb ac-1 treated with fulvic acid at 0.3 L ac-1 followed by two foliar applications of fulvic acid with a nitrogen, calcium and magnesium supplement (Nitro 18) at 0.65 L ac-1 and 20 L ac-1, respectively. In addition, a control treatment was included consisting of a sole application of dry urea at seeding at 150-175 lb ac-1.
Percentage of moisture content was greater in the Fabelle faba bean variety compared to that found in Snowbird (P=0.0010). There was no difference in number of emergent plants per squared foot (P=0.4491) and yield (P=0.3564). From all results it can be suggested that all varieties will provide similar yield and there is no statistical difference in its productivity.
Number of plants per square foot was greater in AC Maverick, and KWS Kellie varieties in contrast to AB Advantage, CDC Cowboy and Canmore varieties (P=0.0197). Percentage of moisture content was lower in AB Advantage, Amisk and AB Cattlelac feed barley varieties; higher moisture content was found in CDC Maverick, Esma, KWS Coralie, CDC Austenson and CDC Cowboy varieties (P=0.0014).
Test weight was highest in CDC Austenson, CDC Maverick, Esma, Gadsby and Canmore varieties whereas Amisk and AB Advantage possessed the lowest (P=0.0011). Varieties that produced the greatest yield were CDC Austenson and AB Advantage, whereas Amisk and Canmore were the least yielding (P=0.0167).
Overall, CDC Austenson is the highest yielding variety with the heaviest test weight despite having a low number of plants per square foot compared to other varieties. The variety Amisk, on the other hand, was low yielding and test weight, moisture content and emergence were less than other varieties.
Similar to feed barley, emergence varied across treatments (P=0.0130). As such, CDC Copeland had a greater number of plants per square foot compared to CDC Anderson. Moisture content was higher in CDC Bow and smaller in CDC Anderson and AAC Connect (P≤0.001).
Malt barley varieties such as CDC Anderson and AAC Connect had lower test weights compared to the higher test weights found in CDC Bow (P=0.0007). There was no difference in yield among malt barley varieties (P=0.2048).
In summary, CDC Bow exhibited a heavier test weight and higher moisture content with comparable emergence to CDC Cropland. These two varieties showed values above those obtained from the CDC Anderson variety. CDC Anderson overall was lower yielding, and showed lower values of test weight, moisture content and number of plants per square foot.
The annual forage trials are performed every year to report yield and forage quality of several varieties in each trial type (alternative, oat, barley, triticale and wheat varieties as well as mixes such as spring and cereal and pulse and cereal). This is a project performed with sister associations such as Battle River Research Group (BRRG), Chinook Applied Research Association (CARA), Gateway Research Organization (GRO), Lakeland Agricultural Research Association (LARA), Mackenzie Applied Research Association (MARA), Peace Country Beef and Forage Association (PCBFA), and West Central Forage Association (WCFA).
In the previous year (2020), cover crops were also seeded, but C and N contents obtained through decomposition were not sufficient to show significant differences across cover crop blends. The impact of cover crop seeding on nitrogen and carbon content can take several years for differences to be observed. Furthermore, the use of cover crops for soil quality improvement is a process that requires steady and uninterrupted contributions.
Synergy and Brio are fertilizer enhancement compounds that can be applied in mixtures with fertilizer and herbicide compounds (as in furrow or foliar respectively). Treatments in spring wheat and barley consisted of (1) In furrow application of Synergy at 0.946L ac-1 with fertilizer, (2) Foliar application of Brio at 0.473 L ac-1 shortly after Esteem (Fluroxypyr at 0.32 lb ac-1, Clopyralid at 0.11 lb ac-1 and MCPA at 0.365 L ac-1) herbicide application, (3) Application of Synergy and fertilizer in furrow with foliar application of Brio shortly after Esteem herbicide application at the same rate previously mentioned for treatment (2).
Treatments for the winter wheat trial included (1) Foliar application of Synergy at 0.946 L ac-1, (2) and (3) were foliar applications of Brio at single and double application rates (0.0055 and 0.11 L ac-1 respectively), (4) foliar application of Toggle at 0.11 L ac-1. A control treatment is also included where standard fertility and management techniques are conducted.