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Synergy and Brio are fertilizer enhancement compounds that can be applied in mixtures with fertilizer and herbicide compounds (as in furrow or foliar respectively). Treatments in spring wheat and barley consisted of (1) In furrow application of Synergy at 0.946L ac-1 with fertilizer, (2) Foliar application of Brio at 0.473 L ac-1 shortly after Esteem (Fluroxypyr at 0.32 lb ac-1, Clopyralid at 0.11 lb ac-1 and MCPA at 0.365 L ac-1) herbicide application, (3) Application of Synergy and fertilizer in furrow with foliar application of Brio shortly after Esteem herbicide application at the same rate previously mentioned for treatment (2).

Treatments for the winter wheat trial included (1) Foliar application of Synergy at 0.946 L ac-1, (2) and (3) were foliar applications of Brio at single and double application rates (0.0055 and 0.11 L ac-1 respectively), (4) foliar application of Toggle at 0.11 L ac-1. A control treatment is also included where standard fertility and management techniques are conducted.


Foliar fertilizers such as Optimize+, Vigor Plus, 10-10-10 Premier Gro, and Prime Micro Cu (Copper) are fertilizer amendments composed of plant based sources. As such, their formulation is based on amino acid chains (peptides) that facilitate penetration into foliar tissue and guaranty greater plant nutrition absorption.


In pea, test weight (P=0.2085) was the same among treatments and thus there was no difference in comparison to the control. In contrast yield was greater in the control and in treatment 2, and lower in treatment 3 (P=0.0387).

In wheat, there was no difference between treatments compared to the control in test weight and yield (P=0.1679 and P=0.4639 respectively).


Canada Western Hard Red Spring (CWRS) Wheat

Number of plants per square foot was greater in the CDC SKRush variety while the lowest number of emergent plants per square foot was found in the CS Tracker variety (P≤0.0001). Percentage of moisture content was lower in the Ellerslie variety while higher moisture content was present in SY Torach (P=0.0010). As for yield, the AAC Brandon was the variety that produced the most compared to variety the CS Jake variety which produced the least yield (P=0.0231). Test weight among variables was statistically the same (P=0.0667).

Overall, it can be argued that CS Tracker and CS Jake are the lowest yielding varieties which coincides with them having the lowest number of emergent plants per square meter. SY Torach and CDC SKRush, two varieties with higher moisture content and emergence, respectively, can also be varieties as high yielding as AAC Brandon, as all these three varieties are statistically the same.

Canada Prairie Spring (CPS) Wheat

Moisture and number of plants per squared foot were the same among all varieties. Test weight and yield however, differed as heavier test weights were reported in AAC Foray VB and AAC Goodwin compared to the rest of the varieties (P=0.0161). AAC Goodwin was the highest yielding variety whereas AAC Foray, AAC Penhold and SY Rowyn were the lowest. Generally, AAC Goodwin was the top variety in terms of test weight and yield, with respect to SY Rowyn which underperformed in relation to the rest of the CPS varieties.


Oat varieties were significantly different among each other. While greater number of plants per square foot were found in the CDC Endure variety, CDC SO-1 had the lowest (P=0.0369). As for percentage of moisture content, AAC Douglas, CDC SO-1 and Arborg varieties had less moisture compared to CDC Haymaker (P= 0.0269). OREe3542M and Arborg varieties had the highest test weight compared to the lower test weight found in the CDC Haymaker variety (P=0.0095). Moreover, yield was greater in the Candem variety compared to the AC Morgan variety which was the least yielding (P=0.0130).

In general terms, Candem was the highest yielding variety even though it had the lowest number of emergent plants per square foot and a similar test weight to CDC Haymaker, which had the lightest test weight among all varieties.


Yield from each crop was different across all intercropping combinations (P≤0.0001). Pulses such as faba bean intersown with wheat and field pea intersown in barley and in canola reported the lowest yields. Barley intersown in both lentil and field pea, respectively, was higher yielding than other cereals such as oat, wheat and other types of main crops such as flax and canola. The North Peace weather is characterized for its long dry periods, where rains could turn out once a month and extensive heat can stress and jeopardize grain quality of main crops. It is also characterized for its soils with heavy clay, where moisture from rain periods can last for days and excess water is unable to filter through. Pulses require plenty of rain and soil moisture in order to produce competent yields. It is possible the dry periods occurring in the summer season compromised pulse yields while cereals were able to manage heat stress.

Number of insects per plot varied across weeks (P≤0.0001) and across intercrop combinations (P=0.0002). The interaction between weeks and intercropping combinations was the same (P=0.3690). The greatest number of insects was reported on the first week of August whereas the lowest was June 24, which coincided with a period of extreme heat and drought. Canola and field pea intercropping combination had the lowest number of insects compared to the rest of the combinations where numbers were statistically the same.


Crystal Green is a fertilizer of continuous release made by Ostara. This fertilizer acts by releasing nitrogen, phosphorus and magnesium upon expel of root exudated citrates. Since fertilizer dissemination is modulated by components released from roots, run-off and leaching is minimized. The extent of its benefits in different crops is yet unknown. Thus, Crystal Green was tested in oilseed, pulse and cereal crops in order to observe which formulation improves yield in each of these crop types.


Green Pea

Green pea varieties were different from each other in moisture (P=0.0148) and yield (P=0.0132), but not in emergence (P=0.9381). Moisture content in CDC Rider green pea was greater than that of the Garde green pea variety. As of yield, the CDC Forest variety was higher yielding compared to CDC Limerick. From these results we can say that yield in CDC Rider and CDC Blueman was as high as that of CDC Forest which also make them great alternatives to grow in the North Peace area.

Yellow Pea

There was no difference among varieties of yellow pea in percentage of moisture content (P=0.4449), yield (P=0.5164) and emergence (P=0.4242). The settings in the plot combine were not arranged accordingly to the yellow pea seed size in the first five plots. This caused for seed to get trapped in the seed exhaust tube and prevented further sieved seed from being collected through the sacking system. Data absence may cause a greater standard error among treatments. This may explain why despite great differences in yield among varieties, data is reported as nonsignificant. However, there was a possible trend of CDC Canary, CDC Lewochko, and AAC Lacombe green pea varieties where these produced greater yields than that found in varieties such as AAC Profit.


The 2021 growing season was the third attempt to successfully grow hemp varieties at the NPARA farm. In the growing seasons of 2019 and 2020 not a single seedling converted into a mature stand. In this year, there were more emergent plants per square foot from the CFX-1 variety compared to the Joey variety which had less (P≤0.0001). Grandi was one of the most vigourous (P=0.0003) varieties with the greatest number of standing individuals (P≤0.0001) whereas the X-59 hemp variety was the least both in vigour and number of standing individuals per square foot. Along with Grandi, other vigourous varieties were CFX-1, Katani and CRS-1. The least vigourous varieties, on the other hand, were Joey and Canda, aside from X-59. The hemp variety with the highest moisture content was Canda while lowest moisture content was found in the CRS-1 variety. The most productive hemp variety was CFX-1, whereas the least productive was Joey (P=0.0003). Under the right conditions, the CFX-1 hemp variety could be considered apt to be grown as a rotational crop. On a similar note, hemp varieties such as Katani and Grandi could also yield high as they showed to be as productive as CFX-1. Hemp varieties such as Joey or Canda may not be the best choices as yield is below par the aforementioned. It is ambitioned that next year we can grow hemp varieties and compile results for a better approach in yield differences among them.